Skip to main content

Full text of "Poverty and politics in Mexico City, 1824-1854"

See other formats


POVERTY AND POLITICS 
IN MEXICO CITY. 1824-1854 



DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE ( 
PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS 
DEGREE OP DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



UNIVERSITY 



FLORIDA 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 




PREFACE 











CONTENTS 



cuartei.es mayores, cuartri.es menores, barrios, aed traza, viii 



ABSTRACT, xvi 






CHAPTER FOUR. PUBUC INSTITUTIONS AND FAMILY, 187 






CHAPTER FIVE. REUCIOH 
Religion, 235. 



H ENFORCEMENT, JUSTICE, 2( 



fV AND POLITICS, 3: 




APPENDIX E 

APPENDIX G 
APPENDIX H 



APPENDIX X 



APPENDIX N 

APPENDIX 0 
APPENDIX P 



PROFILES OF MAN2ANA 57 AND MAXZANA 60, 355 



COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY, 358 
SAURIES AND WAGES, 364 
POPULATION ESTIMATES AND GROWTH, 369 



VAGRANTS AND CRIMINALS, 377 

500-YARD RING/1, 000-YARD CIRCLE PROFILES, 384 




BIOGRAPHICAL SH 



TABLES 




13. WOMEN'S OCCUPATIONS, MANEANA 168, 100 

14. COMPARISON OF RENT BY OCCUPATION, 100 



RESIDENCE AND MEAN RENTS. 153 
EPIDEMIC OF,MRASLES AND DYSENTERY 



PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANTS IN NECATITLAN, SAL SALVADOR 
EL SECO, AND THE SAMPLE MALE POPULATION, 155 
DEPENDENCY RATIOS. 1S5 



CROSSTABULATION OK ACE AT MARRIACE HITH MEAN RENT, 
CROSSTABULATION OP HOUSEHOLD SIZE HITH MEAN RENT, 157 



IN ANDRES. ADMISSION I 



DISCHARGE OF 



SCHOOLS OP THE SOCIETY OF CHARITY, 1851, 207 
MONTHLY ATTENDANCE. 1831, 207 



POPULATION OF PARISHES, CENSUS OF 1816, 247 
POPULATION OF NUNNERIES, 1861, 247 
VALUE OP CORPORATE PROPERTIES IN THE CITY OF MEXICO, 
BAPTISMS, 1842, 248 

COMPLAINTS AGAINST SUSPECTED VAGRANTS, 2B3 
UNEMPLOYMENT AMONG SUSPECTED VAGRANTS, 281 
SUSPECTED VAGRANTS KITH TOO OR MORE OCCUPATIONS, 284 
SUSPECTED VAGRANTS UNABLE TO SUPPORT FAMILIES, 285 



OCCUPATIONAL 




PROFILE, 



II AND MAN2ANA 60 



:k of carpentry si 



IL INVESTED AND LA 



ll, POPULATION GROWTH, 



’OPULATION ESTIMATES 01 



49. MIDDLE/UPPER Cl 



SUSPECTED VAGRANTS. 1S28-1852, « 
SUSPECTED VAGRANTS, 1828-1852, I 
CONDEMNED VAGRANTS, 1828-1852, S 
CONDEMNED VAGRANTS, 1828-1852, l 
CRIMINALS, MINOR WARD 17, 1 
CRIMINALS, MINOR WARD 17, 1 



1828-1852, 



ABSTRACT OF DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE COUNCIL 



IE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE Dt 



POVERTY AND POLITICS 
IN MEXICO CITY, 1824-1854 






McAlister, Ph.D. 



































criticized its ignorant and vulgar character. Nineteenth- 




ideologies. They became politically active only when federalist- 
liberal politicians eaploited their frustrations or caught 

poor to any cause uas fleecing. Cloaked in stoic indifference. 









j«xl. 



Ocher public facilities followed the centripetal 
the Palacio National . The Plata del Volador, diagonally 






facilities were located even farther from the center to pro- 
Tbe location of the Calle de Curtidoree (Tanners' Street) 













Cuartalos mnores usually were of similar size and sere aub- 









il division. Prior tc 



(neighborhood) served as basic administrative units and 
mere difficult to police because of siae. The cuartei sys- 
tem arranged civil divisions in a logical order and reduced 



administrative significance. The traditional residential 




surviving Indian population. The Trees formed a rough 



1,400 yards. It was a fortified sanctuary against a potentially 
hostile Indian population. Expanded over the centuries, Che 

church buildings, Spanish industries, and central markets. aJ 



The barrios were remnants of a complex tribal organisation. 
During Axcec times the city vas dividod into four capullis 



h eapulJi hod four capultecos (subdiscricts) 



geographical 






nod Che Marquees" prayed eogecher ec Che Cacedrnl Nf 
daily Masses. The poor, however, were excluded froo 






'ade chrough Che principal 







political life of Mexico City — the Ciudedela, 




Artillery duels becweee the Ciudedela 






A few textile factories were modern by the standards 
Industrie in 1343 used equipment powered by steam, animals. 





The minting of worthless copper coinage damaged the 

daily valued at $.25 and intrinsically worth $.125. It was 

daily operating cash of the Hospital de San Hipdlito was in 
legal tender; the remainder was counterfeit. 1 M> During Che 
devaluation of 1841, only 7 of the 700 pesos collected at 

caused the value of the currency to gyrate wildly. 















Embroidery Goldsmithlng 

Copper working Gunsmichery 






.-CATEGORY /MEAN-RE 



NOTE: signifies 







COMPARISON OF THE MEAN RENTS OF OCCUPATIONAL 
CATEGORIES IN THE TRAZA AND BARRIOS 





:c GEOGRAPHICAL OS 




Population Upper Artisan Unskilled 



AND OCCUPATION 



Origin Uppor Artisan Unskilled 














sprang to the defense ol 



tunately abound in our country 



damage to Che economy of Che city. Although Che inability 
the inception of the policy, smuggling reached blatant pro- 



Fectories near the coast became illegal way stations where 
smuggled textiles were marked with the national stamp. In 
1844 the government ordered the closure of coastal factories 




Contraband easily found ics way. into Hexico City. 



i|gQ 



r. fas 













win be referred to in the future es the upper clesees. 








MUUtd, Because 







on trade, temporarily muted tlie conflict bo- 
ld journeyman. Republican references to arta- 

-er, persisted. There existed an unbridgeable 
' eorld of Lucas Balderas, owner of a fashionable 
>r shop specializing in military uniforms — the permanent in- 










>cosf. Although cl 














Seco and Necatitldn that they did not min socially with Che 


























culture chat softoncd the disruptive effects of migration. 




















The era's progressives condemned [he Cradicional dis- 
respect for manual labor; however, they criticized the Jour- 
neyman's antiquated Inefficiency. Their thinking is reflected 



it although disrespect ft 




^la*S5£r- 



CHAPTER 





gffigSSE. 

11111 







justified. !1 01 















during his apprenticeship. By day the boy supported himself 












f Mexico Cicy, judging' 









of ^t'p°» c ^o°rb*n a 






is ignorant of hiB craft. Realising the total depen- 




gremio's obligation to develop Che spiritual welfare of its 
members. Each one was dedicated to the performance of a 

saint. From a secular point of view, its most important 
funetion was to serve as a benevolent soeiety during sickness 
or death. The Cofradta of Che Holy Sacrament end Sodality 



*js :ssagij.’ga 

"rsaS’jL'SS-ssr;,;- 






in exhibition to dissemi- 
nate technical information. That sane year they petitioned 
the government to establish public workshops in which the 
unemployed could work.* 7 In 1^51 over 6,400 of the capital's 



janitors, and agricultural laborers." 



>rs, pork butchers, 












he unskilled 
















paciona. Hose, however, preferred Co pass cheir spare time 



I CKhTTS RANKED BV RENT 




?z c f c »" p “ d d 3 p ss 1 b L l s:rr s a $;.r ■ 




rsr„:»ss. , iu£!£.",:s,*a,r*- 



a sacrifice For secure employment .' ** 

vanes, nacive Mexicans were "the perfection of civility: 














begging. 



The pareera (midwife) was not 





















employed, did not work many days of the year. Coi 
laborers and other unskilled workers labored when* 
ployment was available. Those who had the good f* 
be employed by the city experienced full and year- 
ployment. 1 ” These were probably the elite of thi 



eluding Christmas and Easter. 144 Although foreigners r* 
evidence from the late colonial period that pt 



TVelve-hour days were the rule. The municipal labor 
force worked in twelve-hour shifts. 1SJ Artisans employed in 
public workshops left work at 9:00 or 10:00 p.m. 15S Assuming 








inflation, Siglo Diox 



and one-half reals daily — $67.5 annually per capita, or 
$270 annually for a family of four. 160 The newspaper's 

is nearly identical to the $70 that tax legislation required 






laborers. However, 63 percent 
sufficient income to support a 















matrifocal households veto women living together. In Neca- 
titlStl, 31 percent of the nil trifocal households were female 
rnSnases.”’ Host female households possessed young children, 
and it is interesting to speculate that an older adult served 







Zerfermia Verdigul's case illustrates the futility 




? I? If 



sa." in sSSrSsr® 1 ' 



CHAPTER 



LIFE STYLES, HEALTH, DEMOGRAPHY 
















|S|S::g||r 

§?£KsS£TIr 




peared to be generally healthy. Although municipal regula* 

from polluting its water supply. 

The germ theory of disease wos unknown, but many sus- 









SssSl 

^ 3 ^ 



eighteenth century when the owner9 of large privace houses 



Sleeping space rentes from one-eighch to 
night. 83 A small fountain standing in th 
patio served as the source of drinking wa 



m arcisans annual ir 
he inability of the 






suggested 









ar space. Artisans and merchants blocked 



nmoncs of habitable cc 



quagmires" pierced the heart of the city. 121 Because the clogged 
streets blocked passage of Che larger horse-drawn vehicles, 
the cargador cosmtonly transported bulk freight . 1 3 ~ Thompson 



PERCENTAGE OF IMMIGRANTS 
AND HIE SAMPLE HALF. POPULATION 








SOURCE ! Mexico City, Pilmoteca del Institute de Ceneoldgica 
y HereldSa, rollos 310, 311, 976, 993, 997, 1003, 1530, 1551. 




CROSSTABULATION OF HOUSEHOLD SI 






Pigs roamed the streets, spreading offal throughout ec 
doros (huge piles), deposited in the plnaas and someti 



IC legally designated at 




the city endangered one's health. 1 Jl The educated acknowl- 
edged a relationship between the muladoroa and unspecified 



C’Lrrsrs.TS ‘ 



siSSiflSS, 



sr. 



S^sS“i = H : STf : ^ 




childbirth 






Gilders and gold workers developed the universal tremors 
of mercury poisoning. Baking was a particularly unhealthy 


















Children, particularly infants, » 

trates the ravages of scarlet fever among the children of 
Che Sagrario in 1846. Cholera always produced its greatni 

conversation. 100 Dr. Olivcra wrote of two cholera epidemi 
stocenent is supported by the historian Niceto Zamacois 

Mexico City, however, was not nearly so shocking as it was 

tion. The incidence of the 1833 epidemic among the Parisian 



spss.- 



g.ya.S'K's.'rs 1 



:s.s ss-isyss^ss. 



r 



periodically forbade 














number of individuals ir 



ic fif teen-to-f ifcy 





Marriages were of two types: legal ones sanctified 













figures chon those of the Sagrorio. The median age of 








females in the fifteen-to-forty-four-year 

multiplying by 1,000, was extremely 

lor el Scco's fertility rate was 457. Neca- 



rate of 267. The only method of birth control Mexican 
woman prattited was breast feeding. Although modern birth 
control experts question the relationship of breast feeding 

do those of today would have been substantially less fertile 
during lactation. 1 ,5 In 1652 one woman was nursing two 









_gi#“— 






. pages of imgislacidn me 



cribution" of 1825 brutally. They demanded more than the 
poor possessed and would "literally" cake Che bread from 
their mouths. Although the "personal contribution" of 18A2 




The circular admitted that the rates charged Che poor were 
determined arbicrerily and bore no relation to individual 



The government's demand for soldiers was insatiable. 













regularly Issued.' 1 The necessity of keeping 








Hipfilieo 








wealthy benefactresses personally inspected 












gate displaying the bodie 






whose conditions disgraced nineteenth- 

hinta de Sanidad reported in 1848 that 
-crowded and filthy. Two of them were it 


















a fit of prudery, ended the cherished practice of conjugal 
visitation. It uas not long before indignanc prisoners 





aqueducts during which 




were poorly csercized. The Junes de Sonidad thought that 



In 1841 , prompted by scandal and reports of British 

















SOURCE! Gilberco F. 



(Mexico, D.F. , 1936). 




PRIMARY SCHOOLS, ; 




Private (females): 






CHARITY, 1851 




Sclf/siblings/pnrcnts 

Self /mother/ father 

Self/siblings 

Sel f /mo ther/sib lings 




gigantic 








encirely different opinion 






tangible* 










SgtESSs&i 













moving tale of family disintegration. Unbound by the ties 







CHAPTER 



RELIGION AND RECREATION 




secular architecture, the religious buildings wori 
•ng,"' Through their touering, ornate splendor, Che 






:er currency devaluation of 






»nlly. Guidebooks published in 1841 and 1851 listed 51 and 

clergy staffing the offices of the archbishop and che 
colleges. 1 ” It is unclear, however, whether the "Libra" in- 
cludes the noses of deceased clergy and clergy who had once 
served on the staff but had since been reassigned. 1 ’ 

The number of regular clergy was slowly diminishing 

referencing government reports, claimed that 1,688 monks and 
911 nuns existed in the entire nation.” The guidebook of 

Franciscans, 17 Auguscinians, 15 Diegans, 12 Carmelites, and 



>c including the Sisters of Charity, that existed 
143, supervised and staffed the municipal hospitals. 11 










Che clergy residing 






presence of approximately 320 secular and regular clergy in 
Che capital. 3 ’ In IStl, however, members of the ayuneamiento 
reported Co Thompson that 2,800 secular and regular clergy 
resided in the capital. Thompson's figure is probably 

Che compilers of guidebooks and the census callers. 



established emergency hospitals. 33 Although the archbishop 




orders established schools. Eight years later only five 












of maintaining savencaon priests necessitated high charges 








St3rSa“ 




Hi' che beliefs on his own 



rightfully 







illlS 



i de Mayo by building altars at their fountains 



choose to celebrate it. 7 ' On the night before the celebra- 







occurred during the Easter season. The carnival signaled 
Che kcnten feast. During Che wild and vulgar acreec parciei 



Before Holy Week chere occurred cl 












illuscrece Cheir inconcions of breaking Che croicor's 
mecraeas and publicly huniliaced effigies of Judas or 

Cacedral a high Mass accended by Che city's notables Wi 

crowded Che balconies of houses to watch the ensuing cl 
bracion. In the carriage shops, coachoen hurriedly pul 

After Che cathedral choir finished chc in oxcelcia Deo . 










political factions would intensify t 






lying on Che floor. The nir was chick wich smoke, alcoholic 




rSS'HSIF 

ESg&sS- 



sari:;'.=.2‘ir,‘ss. 







ocurred in relatively tranquil periods. In 1825 and 







college of San fdlefonso, thieves attacked 









of convicted criminals in an effort Co heighten the licerate 




ral. 7 Joel Poinsett's porter rebuked him for walking the 
toko a nightly scroll without his sword. 17 Before leaving 







:-/~Hi r rS££r“ 

Hi* 

llllif 



advocate offered one reason for choir rejection. Although 



















s in general disobedient adolescents, wayward apprentices. 



COMPLAINTS 



VAGRANTS 




4151-4158. 




4151-4158. 



IE OCCUPATIONS 












Compiled end computed bj 






id unskilled laborers. Unemployment is defi 










quently drove them CO crime. Rafael 1 






shoemakers into manufacturers and vendors of small boxes or 
feather dusters. Enterprises of this type provided a man 
with a degree of respect but earned little. Mariano Aguilar, 

or his wife. 65 Aguilar and mon like him survived by mixing 
legitimate commerce with crime. Aguilar was arrested for 







ploymenr history, present employment, end snlnry. it for- 
bade che employment of those locking passbooks. 74 The 

bade employers under pain of fine to hire servants lacking 



The literate public was aware thac underemployment 
and unemployment were closely connected to crime. Gabriel 
Perry wrote that because there existed few opportuoities 







crime coincided with economic depression. Correspondence 
ordering the press gongs to che barrios in 1827 discussed 
cho need of pressing "all vagrants and chose who lacked 




plicable conflict." 






:reao of suspects to the Tribunal 






ry Mexicans believed ir 



was similar to that of modem Kc 










dally contact with the poor brought then face to face wit 



wore the height of irreaponaible violence. The July 1840 

alew nearly two hundred innocent civilians. Not all fell 
victim co wayward cannon halls. Soldiers of both factions 
stationed in the towers of che churches and convents amused 
jy sniping at pedestrians searching the streets 






league with common criminals Co despoil his own neighborhood." 
Itoro which was highly critical of the unpaid officials. The 




















military fue to (right) by refusing to cooperate with, and 
often publicly resisting or humiliating, the civilian 
officials. Ihe following cwo examples illustrate their 






the civic milicia publicly insulted end manhandled ai 



from civil jurisdiction, created civilian institutions with 









complaints of its illegality or 



rxietence of a brothel next to 









position's authority 



lengthy procedures of cht 





POVERTY 




Lucking cohesion, organisation, and discipline, the 
often temporarily, similar principals. Serious intrafaction 





















!h of San Miguel. Senor Barrera, 
registrar to falsely certify that 
\mnc was a resident of the disericl 













the manaana, that they earned less chan $200 annually, and 
that their presence intimidated the junta and eligible 
















Liberals. In September 1846 Comer Farias proposed that tlie 







middle class through the distribution of 
absurdity of their reputed hostility to p 

a riot against property swept through the 









Federation and repudiate the Treat/ of Guadalupc-Hidalgo. 71 
propertied classes exaggerated the significance of the 
were a traditional, relatively harmless form of lower-class 













2-rs.rr^r‘i, 









in impending Spanish ii 



In September 1B27 Father Arenas, a Spanish priest, com 





January 1028 ehac the alcaldes auxi Hares be appointed on 
the basis of their unswerving loyalty to the Federation. 
By spring, the strengthening of the civic militia was in 















if rabble rousing. On November 30 ft debated the feasibility 
if publicly declaring its adherence to the federalist Plan 



was not supposed to involve itself with politics. A public 
declaration in favor pf the plan. Caiiedo warned, would 
reduce politics to the "logic of the tavern or enfS," raise 

the Sancanistas objections, Che rebels published the plan. 

the barrios" whose conspiratorial meetings presaged every 
among artisans.' 00 Manuel de la Cadena defended the t 



amenn people loved. Healthy young Juan JoaS Baz v 
ig os a judge once fined a liporo. Angered by cht 
le Jdpero insulted Baa and challenged ‘him to a fis 
»e young judge accepted the challenge, thrashed hi 



;!!i- 




APPENDIX A 



PROFILES 



MANZAHA 60 



OCCUPATIONAL PR 



IT PROFILE, MANZANA 57 AND 



APPENDIX B 

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY 



COMMERCIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 11 




COMMON INDUSTRIAL ESTABLISHMENTS, 















INVENTORY 





■ (Weekly) Lebor Fo 







APPENDIX C 



CIVIL SERVICE 










Office boy 










de IS 44 (Hfxico, D^F. , 1B44). Ayimtamiento de Mexico, 



APPENDIX D 

POPULATION ESTIMATES AND GROWTH 





t 

3 



SS. «£! t,Ts.n‘-- * - ~ -- 



APPENDIX E 



OCCUPATIONAL CATEGORIES 



.ats, 








j 

\ 

t 



{ 



>2 



I 



a 




APPENDIX F 



VAGRANTS AND CRIMINALS 




£ 5 - 



SSSSSeSSSSSKSSuSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSSCCSSSSi 




CONDEMNED VAGRANTS, 1828- ] 










CRIMINALS , MINOR HA 








APPENDIX G 

500-YARD RING/ 1.000- YARD CIRCLE PROFILES 




X Total Industry 



APPENDIX H 

TRAZA/ BARRIOS PROFILES 







[0 UAMTAT10NAL PROFILE 













% paying $1, 7-2,4 






APPENDIX I 

AGE AT DEATH, 1842, 1844, 1850 



costadoo 












APPENDIX X 

PERIODICITY OF DISEASE 



-Y PERCENTAGES 01 






MONTHLY 



; OP DYSENTERY D! 



PERCENTAGES 






APPENDIX 



POPULATION, MANZANA 57 AND MANZANA 



MANZANA 



:x DISTRIBUTION 






MANZANA 



IX DISTRIBUTION 






MANZANA 57, MIGRANT POPULATION 



MANZANA 60, MIGRANT POPULATION 



Compiled 



STAGES Of MIGRANTS If 



MANZANA 60, PERCENTAGES Of 



APPENDIX 



D HOUSEHOLD 



5 : 



i 



as s 



as *4:S 

S£=KSaSSS£:1i 
raarar. H;rA“™::'s.s: — 



APPENDIX N 

OCCUPATIONS OF PARENTS OF FREE SCHOOL PUPILS, 1836 




SOURCE, AACh, torao 2«,8, exp. 352. Dorothy T[anke] Estrada. 
Hiocoria Aaxicana, tone 22, no. 4, pp. 509-510. ' ^ 1042, 



APPENDIX 0 
FAMILY MUTATION 






CARRIER 











IF CRISTOBAL GALINDO, ' 



BUTCHER 




APPENDIX 



VAGRANCY CODE AND CRIMINAL STATISTICS. 



REFERENCES 







"Aniveraario del grico de Dolores," universal, 16 






=S^SrL2SS,",^ 



sssSHS* 1, 






SsJSKViS: 



SwsHF 



ii,:-.; 8»-tKL*\S*8 »• 









n n 




,™, ss: 




,i .risr- " 




tz:: rjtrcmr 






s?*r 













sas. ; 



■■■ 



BIOGRAPHICAL 







e«fK5KE|iis§r : *